Ecology- the study of interactions among organisms and their environment


Abiotic Factors
Abiotic Factors- anything that is part of an organism's environment, and is not living
Even though abiotic factors are non-living, they can have an enormous impact on evolution. Some examples of
abiotic factors would be wind, water, temperature, soil, and sunlight. These factors are very important because
many organisms rely on them and without them they would probably die.

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Biotic Factor
Biotic Factors- anything that is part of an organism's environment and is living
A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism.
Each biotic factor53.jpg needs energy to do work and food for proper growth. Some examples of biotic factors are
plants, animals, fungi, protists, and bacteria.

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Populationmaple-trees-12_4.jpg
Population- members of one species that live in
the same place and interbreed
Population is a type of interaction. In ecology, the population
of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the
Lincoln Indeflamingos3.jpgx.

Community
Community- group of interacting populations
Community is another type of interaction. Community
is a group of interacting living organisms sharing a
populated environment.



Ecosystem
Ecosystem- the interactions of the community and the abiotic factors
Terrestrial-land and aquatic-water are different types of ecosystems. Two types of aquatic-water ecosystems include marine-salt water and freshwater.freshwater_bay_port_angeles_marunde.jpg
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Habitat
Habitat- the place where an organism lives out its life
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A habitat is an environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant orother type of organism. Habitats can change, or even dissapear.

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Niche
Niche- the role a species plays in its habitat
Niche includes how a species gets food and
how it determines whether
or not it is food.


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Symbiosis
Symbiosis- a relationship between organisms
of different species
One reason why species might form relationships
with other species is to increase their
chance of survival.



Commensalism
Commensalism- a symbiotic relationship in which one species
benefits and the other is unaffected
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In commensalism there is no harm or benefit. One
example of commensalism is Spanish moss.

65F37EE1-AB0A-E264-F43583CD3E8E381C_1.jpgMutualism
Mutualism- a symbiotic relationship in which both
species benefit
One example of mutualism is ants
and acacia trees. Another example
is teeth cleaner birds.

Parasitism
Parasitism- a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is harmed
Some examples of parasitisms would be ticks, tapeworms, tree fungus, and diseases.


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Autotrophs
Autotrophs- "self feed"
Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from chemicals to make their own food. Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis are the processes they use to make their food.

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Heterotrophs
Heterotrophs- "other feed"
Heterotrophs eat plants, animals, fungi,
protists or bacteria (autotrophs or other
heterotrophs) in order to get energy.






Types of Heterotrophs:bear-eating-salmon.jpg

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Carnivore- feeds on animals
Herbivore- feeds on plants
Omnivore- feeds on both
plants and animals
Decomposer- breaks down and
absorbs dead organisms and wastes







Food Chain
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Food chain- illustrates the flow of
energy through an ecosystem
Food chains usually have no more than five steps.With each step the amount of energy
transferred decreases. Each organism represents
a different trophic level.




Food Web
Food web- more involved, and describes
all of the possible feeding relationships in an ecosystem.
In a food web the arrows indicate the flow of energy from where energy was stored
(prey) to where the energy is going (predator).


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Cycles in Nature:
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Carbon Cycle

The carbon cycle is one of the most important
cycles of the Earth because it allows carbon to
be recycled and reused throughout the biosphere
and all of its organisms.



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Nitrogen Cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the process by which
nitrogen is converted between its various
chemical forms.






320px-Water_cycle.pngWater Cycle
The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above,
and below the surface of Earth. Water can change states among liquid,
vapor, and solid at various places in the water cycle.